Saturday, May 30, 2020
Corporate criminal responsibility (Essay Sample) Content: CHAPTER ONE1.0 IS INTERNATIONAL LAW REALLY LAW?"Every society whether it be small or large, powerful or weak, has created for itself a framework of principles within which to develop. What can be done, what cannot be done, permissible acts, forbidden acts have all been spelt out within the consciousness of that communityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã [M .N. Shaw, International Law ( 3rd edn ,1995) p 1] This framework is what is referred to as law. It is what binds members of a given community together. The need for law can be traced to the time when man still lived in a state of nature when man discovered that life in a state of nature without law was as Thomas Hobbes puts it short, unbearable, brutish and nasty. Man then decided to come together and install a sovereign whom they gave all their rights to exercise on their behalf and make law to govern them. Therefore, the existence of rules and regulations is the basis for peaceful coexistence of people and nations around the world. [See J Locke, Two Treatises of Government" in Llyod of Hampstead and Freeman, M.D.A Lloyds Introduction to Jurisprudence,( 7th edn ,2001 ) p 145- 150] [See T Lawal, International law and municipal law: The interface available at website accessed on 1 May 2012] International law is an example of a framework developed to govern society. It has been defined differently by different people with others simply referring to it as the law of nations as it governs states unlike municipal law which governs citizens of that given state. In the SS Lotus France v TurkeyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s case international law was defined asInternational law is law that governs relations between independent states. The rules of law binding states therefore emanate from their own free will as expressed in conventions (treaties) or by usage (customary state practice) generally accepted as expressing principles of law and established in order to regulate relations between these co-existing independent communities or with a view to achieving common aims[SS Lotus France v Turkey 10, 1927, P CIJ Serial A No 18.] Basically International law is the law that governs human activities and relationships at the international level.It governs states and international organizations. Much has however changed with time so that today international law governs not only states and international organizations but also individuals, transnational corporations as well as non- governmental organizations.[What is International Law available at website accesed on 2 May 2012] International law is divided into public international law and private international law. Public international law governs the relations of states and other subjects of international law private international law on the other hand govern private individuals.1.1 Sources of International LawInternational law is developed in a number of ways. First, it comes out of international agreements and treaties between states. Treaties are the most important source of international law. Secondly, customary practices that evolves over time which is referred to as customary international law. Third, general legal principles that are common to a significant number of states can become part of international law. Finally, the work of international legal scholars also forms international law.[B Eric, "International Law." Beyond Intractability. (eds). Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Research Consortium September 2003 available at . Website accesed on 2 May 2012] 1.2 The legal quality of international law.Irrespective of the above definitions questions have arisen as to whether international law should be accorded the status of law. Many people as well as international law scholars have questionedthe legal quality of international law. To that effect M N Shaw is of the view that the first reaction to international law is to question its legal quality.[International Law, (4th edn,1997) Cambridge University Press Pg 5] According to some legal positivists international law is not law properly so called. John Austin opines that there is need to separate law properly so called and law improperly called. He is of the view that laws are commands by a sovereign backed by sanctions therefore for international law to be properly called law there must be a sovereign body capable of issuing commands backed by sanctions. To him since international law emanates from different states and not from a single sovereign it is merely positive international morality.[R. J A.C .Arend and R. D V. Ligt (eds)International Approaches from International Law and International Relations (2nd edn,1996)Oxford University Press quoting John Austin The Province of Jurisprudence Determined (1832) at p 57] Hans Kelsen agrees that coercion represents an essential element of law but then differs with AustinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s view that sanctions must be negative, although he agrees that international law is a legal system from the point of view of its rol e he classifies it as "authentic law in primitive formÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã [R .J .A C. Arend and R.D.V Ligt (eds)International Approaches from International Law and International Relations (2nd edn,1996)Oxford University Press quoting HartÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s General Theory of Law and the State , A.Wedberg trans Cambridge Mass Harvard University Press 1945 at p 57] M N Shaw disagrees with the views of Austin and Kelsen he states that "to see the sanctions of international law in the statesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ rights of self-defence and reprisals is to misunderstand the role of sanctions within a system because they are at the disposal of the states, not the system itself." To him putting the element of sanction at the forefront of theories seeking to establish the legal quality of international law results into difficulty because international law lacks a coherent, recognized and comprehensive framework of sanctions.[M N Shaw , International Law ( 3rd edn ,1995) p 5] [Ibid] H LA Hart also disagrees w ith KelsenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s and AustinÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s view that sanctions are necessary element of the legal system. According to him law is an aggregation of obligatory norms which consists of primary and secondary rules. Primary norms are those telling human beings what not to do while secondary rules are rules of adjudication. Any law that lacks secondary rules is declared primitive law. He opines that since international law lacks secondary rules with which the validity of its substantive provisions can be assessed it is not a legal system at all but merely a collection of rules. Rules according to him mean accepted standards of conduct supported by certain forms of social pressure which can be observed and categorized as so.[M N Shaw, International Law ( 3rd edn ,1995) quoting H L A Hart ,The Concept of Law (1961) p 209] The absence of international legislature, international court to enforce international law and an international government are the main reasons as to why the question as to whether international law is law is often asked. H.L .A Hart raises the concerns. He states that:"[The] absence of international legislature, courts with compulsory jurisdiction and centrally organized sanction has inspired misgiving, at any rate in the breast of legal theorists. The absence of this institutions means that the rules for states resemble that simple form of social structure consisting only of primary rules of obligation, which when we find among societies of individuals, we are accustomed to, contrast with a developed legal system. It is indeed arguable, as we shall show, that international law not only lacks the secondary rules of change and adjudication which provide for legislative and courts, but also a unifying rule of recognition specifying Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"sourcesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ of law and providing general criteria for the identification of its rules. These differences are indeed striking and the question is international law really law? Can hardly be put asid eÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã [Supranote 12] Other writers accept that international law is law and argue that positivists use municipal law as a model for law in general and that is the reason as to why according to them international law is not law. They argue that there is need for recognition of the fact that international law operates in a different plane. One S Rosenne stated that,International law is a law of co-ordination not as is the case of most internal law, a law of subordination. By law of co-ordination we mean to say that it is created and applied by its subjects, primarily the independent states directly or indirectly for their own common purpose.[S Rosenne, Practice and Methods of International Law (1984) Dobbs Ferry New York : Oceana , p 2] International lawyers have also argued that there can be a law without a sovereign for example customary international law. According to these scholars there exists a set of law that emerges from practice and not from a sovereign, and tha t the prescription role of the sovereign can be exercised by other actors that is relevant international organizations.Although there is no global authority with the mandate to enforce international law there are other mechanisms that can be used to enforce international law. There is a mechanism commonly known as self Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ help. This is simply unilateral counter measures taken by a state against another state who feels that the other state has acted contrary to international law and thus injured its interests. This can be implemented by closing down its embassy as well as other discretionary measures such as use of force. Use of force is however subject to other international rules (self- defence)International law can also be enforced through sanctions. That is a group of states can arrange to subject a target state to enforcement actions that entails exclusion from either all or selected forms of international cooperation for instance trade sanctions,...
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ is an epic poem written by John Milton. In this poem, he explains the fall of the paradise that God made in the beginning of the creation. He takes the reader to hell and gives them an understanding of what is going on and the way he envisions hell to be. Milton then explains how Satan and his followers plan to deal with losing the war to God. He also takes us on SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to find man and describes the way Satan plans to destroy the paradise that he discovers when he eventually finds Earth and the new creation God made. In Book I, Milton starts off at the end of the war with God, and Satan and his followers being cast down to hell. Satan wakes up in hell and is in shock that he has lost the war and is now in thisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Satan decides to go discover earth and man by himself, but while he is gone, all the others are exploring hell and seeing what else is down there. This is when they find Ã¢â¬Å"a frozen continent / Lies d ark and wild, beat with perpetual storms / Of whirlwind and dire hail.Ã¢â¬ (Book II, 587-589) One would think the ice and snow would be a relief from all the fire around them, but it was just as bad as the fire. It was used so that people could feel the pain of the freezing temperatures. Then they were forced to go back into the burning fires, so they could have a combination of pain from both extremes. In book II lines 648-673, Milton uses great imagery to vividly describe the two shapes that Satan saw as he reached the gates of hell. He description of the two shapes allows the reader to picture what Satan is looking at and how horrible the site of these two shapes must be. This was SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s first test to reaching Earth and discovering man. He had to get through the gates of hell and he passed because of his ability to persuade others to take his bribes. He promises them access to heaven if he can get through and they let him. It also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help that he is technic ally both their fathers. SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s slyness is his main weapon. Without this, he most likely wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been able to make it out of the gates of hell and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been able to convince Eve to eat the fruit fromShow MoreRelatedParadise Lost By John Milton853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAt first glance, Paradise Lost by John Milton can easily give the impression that this classic piece of literature is a cut copy of the Book of Genesis. Contrary to that notion, MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s retelling of the story of the fall of man differs from the western idealized Old Testament in many ways. Throughout the 10,000 lines of the poem, Milton characterizes Adam, Eve, and Satan [Lucifer] with vivid, well thought out dialogue. Overall, MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s reimplementation of the archetypal text of the Book of GenesisRead MoreSymptoms of Narcissism in Eve Using Paradise Lost1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNarcissism in Eve I. Introduction A. Ã¢â¬Å"The allusion to pagan fable that most haunts views of Miltons Eve is her Narcissus-like behavior when, fresh from her Creators hand, she pauses at the verge of the mirror lake attracted by her own reflection and has to be called twice: first by God, who leads her to Adam, and then, as she starts back toward the softer beauty of the face in the lake, by Adam himself.Ã¢â¬ (McColley 63). B. EveÃ¢â¬â¢s scene in which she observes herself at the pool canRead More Essay on the Downfall of Man in John Miltons Paradise Lost1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe classic tragedy Paradise Lost, written by John Milton, demonstrates how the fallen angels lose the paradise they have been given, and how this fall directly effects the downfall of man as well. Before anything ever was, all matter was chaos; utter darkness and filth. A mighty being, God, rose up out of chaos and created the firmament called Heaven, and all the universe (4). The angels, and archangels that populated Heaven, danced in the realms of the magnificent light (8). Lucifer,Read MoreParadise Lost By John Milton997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn John MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Paradise Lost, written out were twelve books that mainly focused on Adam and Eve. The plot essentially focuses on the defiance that Adam and Eve have created due to SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s persuasive manner to destroy humankind. In book four, Milton introduces the creation of man. The Bible states, Ã¢â¬Å"the LORD God formed the man of dust from the groundÃ¢â¬ (The Holy Bible (ESV), Genesis. 2.7). The name of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation is Adam. After contemplation, God realizes man shall not be alone. This isRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Adam And Eve In Paradise Lost1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOne of MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s most compelling interpretations in Paradise Lost and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the story of the creation involve its very first embodiments of mankind, Adam and Eve. The poemÃ¢â¬â¢s first depiction of Adam and Eve in their unfallen paradise accentuates their nobility, dignity and perfection, the ir unfallen aristocratic posture as they rule over the sacred garden of Eden. In this state of innocence, Adam and Eve discover themselves and eventually one another, allowing them to explore and interpret their ownRead MoreAnalysis Of John Milton s Paradise Lost 1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Portrayal of Women in Paradise Lost Paradise Lost is an epic account of the creation and subsequent fall of Adam and Eve. Borrowing from the book of Genesis, Milton chronologically details the events leading up to SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s fall, the creation of the universe, the temptation of Adam and Eve, and their ultimate loss of their creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. Considered to be one of the best literary works of the 17th Century, Paradise Lost gives a vivid account of Adam and EveÃ¢â¬â¢s fall from the Garden of EdenRead More Treatment of Eve in Paradise Lost Essay734 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe treatment of eve in Paradise Lost We can see the poem deals with the entire story of mans fall from grace, including background for Satans motives. In Paradise Lost, Eve was tricked by Satan, who assumed the form of a serpent, into eating from the Tree of Knowledge. Satan had whispered into her ear when she was asleep, and when he spoke to her later, he used his cunning to mislead her: He ended, and his words replete with guile Into her heart too easy entrance won. Fixed on the fruitRead MoreThe Paradise Lost By Milton1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMilton reproduces the scenes of Bible in his Paradise Lost. This epic reveals the sin and degradation of human beings in twelve volumes. In the beginning, because of SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s challenging of authority, he has been expelled from the realm of heaven to the hell by God. This rebelling hero always seeks for a chance to take his revenge on the unshakable authority. Based on consideration of the strength of his party, man, the newest creation of God, turned into the ideal target. In the end, Eve successfullyRead MoreBiblical Analysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmonster is shown with the help of many references other than the bible, such as Paradise Lost. Mary Shelley not only uses the bible to draw upon, she uses Paradise Lost by John Milton. Ã¢â¬Å"More than any other literary forebear, John Milton s Paradise Lost stands as a continuing intellectual and mythic reference point for Mary Shelley s FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ (Curran). John Milton uses his version of a creation story, Paradise Lost, to deliver a message to those that read it. The influence of MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem spreadsRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein and John Miltons Paradise Lost Essay1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJohn Miltons Paradise Lost Ã¢â¬Å"Forth reaching to the Fruit, She pluckÃ¢â¬â¢d, she eat:/ Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat/ Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,/ That all was lost [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬ (PL 8. 781-784) In the gothic novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley weaves an intricate web of allusions through her charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ expedient desires for knowledge. Both the actions of Frankenstein, as well as his monster allude to John MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Paradise Lost. Book eight
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Transcendentalism: The Light That We Cannot See Ã¢â¬Å"Transcendentalism [Ã¢â¬ ¦] has primarily much the position of the sun [Ã¢â¬ ¦] We are conscious of it as of a kind of splendid confusion [Ã¢â¬ ¦] But the circle of the moon is as clear and unmistakable, as recurrent and inevitable, as the circle of Euclid on a blackboardÃ¢â¬ (Chesterton, 24). These words encapsulate the driving rationale of the anti-transcendentalist argument Ã¢â¬â that although individuals seek transcendentalism, they can never truly realize it, or, to compare with the sun, see it. Rather, they inevitably place attention on the Ã¢â¬Å"moon,Ã¢â¬ the perspicuous reflection of transcendentalism Ã¢â¬â that is, individualism Ã¢â¬â and neglect the responsibilities of society. Emerson institutes the philosophy of transcendentalism in his essay, Nature, teaching that divinity pervades all nature and humanity. Although transcendentalists would offer that man can only better his spiritual life by embra cing individualism, pursuing the ideal, and being one with nature, the ability and appeal of transcendentalism to advance enlightenment upon the soul of the individual rests on the false suppositions that feckless man can achieve perfection and that nature embodies God, thus causing transcendentalism to conversely detriment the spiritual life of the individual, isolating him, prescribing his rebellion, and invigorating his selfish pursuits, simply because he confides his soul in creation instead of the Creator (Tocqueville, 482). The transcendentalistShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at the Transcendental Movement1455 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesintellectual men of their time and are now the figureheads of transcendentalism. In the simplest terms, to Ã¢â¬Å"transcendÃ¢â¬ means to rise above and beyond the norms of societyÃ ¾ not physically, but mentally. Transcendentalists, such as Emerson and Thoreau, believed that for one to determine the ultimate reality of God, the universe, and the self, one had to transcend everyday human experiences. Ideas that form the basis of transcendentalism are still continuously being used today in popular culture, suchRead MoreSelf-Reliance: Journey through Transcendentalism832 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJourney through Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is the system of philosophy that leads to reality. Although the philosophy is an opinionated subject, there are still universal judgments about it. William Bryant, Henry Thoreau, and Ralph Emerson illustrate the ideas of transcendentalism through their works using rhetorical devices. Thoreau uses paradox to illustrate his belief of individualism in his memoir Walden. In BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s Thanatopsis he describes death through his uses of pathos. EmersonRead MoreTranscendentalism : The American Scholar1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThose Americans who have heard of American Transcendentalism associate it with the writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and his friend Henry David Thoreau. Asked to name things about the group they remember, most mention EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s ringing declaration of cultural independence in his Ã¢â¬Å"American ScholarÃ¢â¬ address at HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s commencement in 1837 and his famous lecture Ã¢â¬Å"Self-Reliance,Ã¢â¬ in which he declared that Ã¢â¬Å"to be great is to be misunderstoodÃ¢â¬ ; ThoreauÃ¢â¬â¢s two-year experiment in self-sufficiency at Walden PondRead MoreEssay about Transcendentalism1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Transcendentalism was an early philosophical, intellectual, and literary movement that thrived in New England in the nineteenth century. Transcendentalism was a collection of new ideas about literature, religion, and philosophy. It began as a squabble in the Unitarian church when intellectuals began questioning and reacting against many of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s orthodoxy ways regarding all of the aforementioned subjects: religion, culture, literature, social reform, and philosophy. They in turn developedRead MoreAnalysis Of Walt Whitman s What Came First The Chicken Or The Egg? 1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWaldo Emerson and Walt Whitman a similar question of Ã¢â¬Å"What came first the chicken or the egg?Ã¢â¬ comes to mind. Scholars may argue that without Emerson and his influential sermons and speeches that Walt Whitman would have never found his voice, but how can someone who so many consider one of the greatest poets of all time cease to exist? Ralph Waldo Emerson knew what he was doing when he published The Poet. It was an outcry for the American people to speak a truthful narrative about the human experienceRead MoreComparing and Contrasting McCandless and Emerson 812 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages American transcendentalism was a vital movement in philosophy and literature that grew over time. One person who stood out from american transcendentalism was, Ralph Waldo Emerson. He expressed his ideas and values through one of his works, Nature. There he broadcasted the relationships between God, man, and nature. Someone who would be seen in this movement would be, Chris McCandless as a transcendentalist. The novel,, Into the Wild, shares the decisions Chris made during his nomadic life styleRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswife, Sophia Peabody, practiced transcendentalism, but he spent a year living and working at Brook Farm in Massachusetts, which was a transcendental community. Influenced by SophiaÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in the transcendentalist movement, Hawthorne invested money in an experimental Utopian community. Transcendentalists believe social institutions such as organized religion, society, and political parties destroy th e purity of the individual. Some of these elements of belief can be found throughout HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1397 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslifestyle as too extreme. Transcendentalism was a philosophical way of thinking for oneself, and not letting the belief of society alter the personal opinion. Transcendentalism correlates with The Scarlet Letter and its characters as they battle societyÃ¢â¬â¢s set values of what is socially right or wrong. Adultery and which craft are just two of the topics that would not be exceptional to the puritans. Hawthorne came to realization that everyone is human and as humans we make mistakes, we should not punish eachRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMason Eggers Mrs. Szwajkowski Junior English 200 24 March 2016 Romanticism/Transcendentalism Essay Edgar Allen PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,Ã¢â¬ Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s Black Veil,Ã¢â¬ and William Cullen BryantÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ThanatopsisÃ¢â¬ illustrate several Romantic and Transcendentalist (and anti-Transcendentalist) traits. All of these authors are regarded as very important and influential Romantic writers. Their works are renowned all across the entire world. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ Read MorePlato s Theory Of Recollection1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe four arguments that are put forward are; the inverse contention or the cyclical contention, this hypothesis tries to clarify that the structures we have are unceasing and can t change and the spirit can never die and it generally brings life. The body is accepted to be mortal and needs to experience the physical demise however the spirit is not crushed simultaneously. Plato tries to make clear of the contention by looking at cold and fire. The second argument is otherwise called the theory of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences? Answer: Case Study 1 1. Anastasia faces difficulty in transfer from her hospital bed to the wheel chair and vice versa. Although she suffers from hemiparesis and the functioning of her body was reduced, she has regained some function, post accident. She even needs assistance in covering short distances. Since she does not know English, she faces problem in communicating and in expressing herself. She even faces difficulty in comprehending the language that is spoken by her family and this is the result of aphasia, which is a speech disorder and occurred as a result of injury to the left side of her brain (Head, H., 2014). 2. Since Anastasia is unable to express herself and comprehend the language of her family or nurses, it is important to use non verbal skills or use of communication aids like picture cards, using charades or employing bi lingual staff that can help in assisting the patient (Jirwe, M., Gerrish, K and Emami, A., 2010). 3. The actual nursing care needs of Anastasia are maintenance of correct body posture and preventing excessive stress or pressure on the body when indulging in daily activities like walking, sitting, etc. The other role of the nurses is to identify the signs and symptoms of stroke and provide supplementary oxygen to the patient. The nurses are also required to ensure efficient transfer of glucose containing fluids. Stroke should be taken and considered as an emergency situation and thus, high priority treatment action should be sought (Summers et al., 2009). 4. As a result of current medical condition of Anastasia, the potential complications that can occur can be related to disorders of sleep, atelectasis, pneumonia, depression, confusion, problem in swallowing and incontinence. Any kind of problem in the function of swallowing can eventually lead to undernutrition, dehydration or aspiration. Due to the hemiparesis condition, the immobility of her lims can further lead to thrombolic disease or UTI, contractures and pressure ulcers. The most dangerous and the most common problem is the inability to perform daily functions like ability to walk or see or think, speak, feel and remembers (The Merck manual, 2014). One other complication is the problem in the speech and the comprehending power of the patient. If the problem of aphasia still persist, it will be very difficult to speak, understand and even express what do you want to speak. Case Study 2 1. The methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is mostly found in hospitals wards. This strain of bacteria is resistant to all the penicillins and the beta lactam antimicrobial drugs and thus, are confined to the hospitals and the health care units. This bacteria spreads with the number of people coming in contact with the health care facility (David, M Daum, R., 2010). The standard precautions can help in prevention of MRSa infections in the health care facility. Hand washing, using gloves, protection of eyes, nose and mouth, wearing gowns, proper handling of laundry or disposable and lastly proper device handling of the care of the patient and the instruments or the devices, these methods can help in preventing the spread of MRSA. It is also important to ensure proper placement of the patients and not to keep the patients, already infected by MRSA in the common ward (David, M Daum, R., 2010).2. The possible risk factors for development of nosocomial infection are the d eath or discharge. Since the patient faced smelly discharge from the wound, this was the potential risk factor for developing the infection ( Wolkewitz et al., 2008). Secondly, the bacteria was already present in the hospital ward and the wound was not protected so as to avoid the initiation of infection.3. The standard precautions to prevent the risk include hand hygiene, before and after every patient contact, use of personal protective equipment, use of sterile needles, aseptic non touch technique, waste management, proper disposal of waste, respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette, allotment of single rooms and cohorting of the patients (NHMRC, 2010). Apart from these measures, it is important for the nurses to cater to the surgical wounds in a proper and sterile manner. The would should not be left exposed to the environment and after contact, hands should be sterilized before touching another patient. This will prevent the spread of MRSA through contact. Being obese, the4. mThe nursing strategies include developing an understanding with the patient such that it becomes easier to explain him about the effectiveness and use of the nutrients for curing of the illness. Another option is to build a more effective partnership or a therapeutic alliance with the patient.Case Study 3 1. The pre existing conditions of the patient might be affected by the fall and hospitalization. Since he is not taking any medications for depression, the condition has worsened and he is having suicidal ideations. Secondly, due to asthma and obesity, he is facing more pain and is being given morphine for making the pain subside. The conscious level of the patient is good which signifies that the fracture in the skull was not that severe. 2. The potential risk factors for Gordon after the surgery are his age and the size and deterioration of the hematomas. Even the anesthesia poses immense risk to his health.3. Gordon can be lifted by making use of the mechanism by which the end of the bed can be raised or lowered, depending upon the requirement. In order to ensure that the back pain is not elevated, the upper end can be raise and the patient can be shifted.4. Morphine is a schedule 2 drug. The seven rights of drug administration are right patient, right dose, right medication, right route of administration, right time, right documentation and right response (Lippincott Nursing center, 2014).5. The discharge of Gordon will require his family and the doctors to identify the needs regarding his ability to perform the daily activities. The hospital will provide the walking aid to the patient and schedule the next check up time. The doctor will ensure that the environment of the patients home is such that his recovery wil l be stimulated and not inhibited. The patient will be required to take medications on time and report in case of any adverse drug reactions (Grimmer et al., 2006). Case Study 4 1. When Louise initially enter the ward her vital signs are not normal and thus, the priority of treatment is the management of these signs. The pulse rate is high, temperature is high and respiration rate is also high. It is required to provide her oxygen mask so as to provide proper respiration. Following this her wound need to be assessed for any kind of infection or discharge. She should be given pain relieving analgesia so as to reduce the signs and symptoms and restore the normal body vital signs. Since the wounds are oozing, they should be properly cleaned and anti microbial agents should be used to prevent infection. 2. The immediate assessment comprises of checking the airway, breathing and the circulation of the patient. In order to stabilize the patient, the oxygen mask should be supplemented. Cardiac monitoring should be done next and the blood pressure of the patient, pulse rate and the temperature should also be recorded. The patient should be checked for seizure too.3. Lousie might be suffering from sepsis, which is infection by the bacteria. Since the wounds were open and ozzing, the contamination is quite possible. Also the symptoms of rise in temperature, elevated heart rate and increased respiratory rate, all point out to occurrence of this condition (Medicinenet.com, 2015).4. To minimize further deterioration of the patient it is important to immediately implement clinical intervention and treatment procedure. The procedure of defibrillation should be performed and post resustication care should be initiated. The arrangements for transferring the patient to the secondary care unit sho uld also be made simultaneously (NHS, 2015). References Head, H. (2014). Aphasia and kindred disorders of speech. Cambridge university Press. Jirwe, M., Gerrish, K and Emami, A. (2010). Student nurses experiences of communication in cross-cultural care encounters. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(3): 436-444. Summers et al. (2009). Comprehensive Overview of Nursing and Interdisciplinary Care of the Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient. Stroke, 40: 2911-2944. The Merck Manual. (2014). Overview of stroke. Retrieved on 18th March 2015 from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic_disorders/stroke_cva/overview_of_stroke.html. NMRC (National Health and Medical Research Counsil). (2010). Clinical educators guide for the prevention and control of infection in healthcare, retrieved on 18th March 2015 from https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/cd33_icg_clinical_ed_guide_web.pdf. Wolkewitz et al. (2008). Risk factors for the development of nosocomial pneumonia and mortality on intensive care units: application of competing risks models. Critical care, 12:R44. David, M Daum, R.(2010). Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Epidemiology and Clinical Consequences of an Emerging Epidemic. Clinical microbiology reviews, 23(3): 616-687. NHS (2015). Deteriorating patient policy: General policy no. 50. Wirral community. Lippincott Nursing center.com. (2014). 8 rights of medication administration, retrieved on 18th March 2014 from https://www.nursingcenter.com/Blog/post/2011/05/27/8-rights-of-medication-administration.aspx. Grimmer et al. (2006). Incorporating patient and carer concerns in discharge plans: the development of a practical patient centered checklist. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and practice, 4(1). Medicinenet.com (2015). Sepsis. Retrieved on 18th March 2015 from https://www.medicinenet.com/sepsis/page2.htm.
Friday, April 17, 2020
Manipulation: to control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to ones advantageÃ¢â¬ (thefreedictionary. com). This is what reality television manages to do to the world we live in today. Reality television in fact, is not always real. Many shows on television create a false sense of reality for their viewers. This influences people to think, act, and feel certain ways about others and the world around them. These reality television shows use stereotypes in many cases to continue to have an audience, and because people continue to watch these shows, these stereotypes are not only in television but they disseminate into society, too. Reality television does not only stereotype one subject, either. This analysis will help prove that reality television stereotypes gender, self image, and race. Many people might not really think these stereotypes are shown too often, and have an effect on them, but believe it or not, they do. We will write a custom essay sample on Reality TV or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although viewers think reality television does not use stereotypes, based on many findings, stereotyping of gender, self image, and race does exist in reality television, and is done because these shows know viewers will continue to watch, which leads to influencing the way society thinks. Gender is a huge stereotype in reality television. There are many reality television shows that portray women as stupid, catty, jealous, gold diggers, and easily manipulated. Jenifer L. Pozner discusses this topic in her book Reality Bites Back: the Troubling Truth about Guilty Pleasure TV. Chapter three of this book is titled Ã¢â¬Å"Bitches and Morons and Skanks, Oh My! : What Reality TV Teaches Us about WomenÃ¢â¬ and the author goes into further detail of the stereotypes of women shown in reality television. Pozner provides her readers with examples from reality television shows, such as The Real Housewives of New Jersey, The Bachelor, Americas Next Top Model, The Hills, Flavor of Love, and many more to help prove the point that reality television stereotypes women. On shows like these women are shown getting in something called Ã¢â¬Å"catfightsÃ¢â¬ often. These fights are over so many dumb things. Most of the time it is fighting over men. When viewers see things like this they begin to get the idea in their head that women are catty back stabbers. Pozner acknowledges the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"If millions of TV viewers believe that sisterhood is not powerful but spiteful, it becomes all that much harder for women to achieve any further social progress in America. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 108). Her point is that women need not let these shows affect them in the real world. Not only are women shown as backstabbers, but they are also shown as stupid. Just about everyone today has had to herd of the saying Ã¢â¬Å"dumb blonde. Ã¢â¬ This saying is influenced by reality television but not only for blondes, but for women in general. Pozner emphasizes on the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"Time and time again, we learn that the female half of the population is cringe-inducingly stupid. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 108). She continues to say, Ã¢â¬Å"In embarrassing scenes across unscripted subgenre, women are portrayed as Ã¢â¬Ëthe dumber sexÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Pozner pg. 109). Pozner also provides a great example from the popular show Bridezilla that mostly women watch. It is a quote from the show that sayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Thinking is a waste of time. Thinking is for people who have no brainsÃ¢â¬ (Pozner 109). This is only one example, but it clearly proves that reality television is trying to get this idea into womenÃ¢â¬â¢s heads and make woman look stupid. Another example for the stereotypes of a Ã¢â¬Å"dumb blondeÃ¢â¬ and woman in reality television, are the shows The Simple Life with Paris Hilton and Nicole Richie, and The Newlyweds with Jessica Simpson. All of these women are publicized doing and saying stupid things on the shows. For example, Jessica Simpson was not sure if Chicken of the Sea Tuna was tuna or chicken, which made her look stupid. Both these shows are known to be reality television shows but they are actually scripted. According to Pozner, Ã¢â¬Å"Both Hilton and Simpson have said they were just Ã¢â¬Ëplaying charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ on The Simple Life and The Newlyweds. These media-savvy young women have intentionally played up their airhead images to heighten their fame and their already-overflowing bank accountsÃ¢â¬ . That is smart on their part to make more money, but these fake reality television shows that are making them look stupid, becomes a bigger issue in society because people are starting to think that women are stupid. Pozner compares these shows to the bigger social issues that they cause by saying Ã¢â¬Å"After all, less than one hundred years ago, American women were still denied the ability to vote, partly justified by the allegation that they were less intelligent than menÃ¢â¬ (Pozner 116). She says, Ã¢â¬Å"Today, class action lawsuits are still being levied against Fortune 500 corporations that refuse to promote women out of secretarial and retail positions based on institutional biases that consider women not as mentally prepared as men for achievement and leadership. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 116). People might not think that it is a big deal that reality television portrays these girls and woman as stupid, but it is leaking into society and definitely affects the way companies and people think and act towards women. Pozner cites a fact that. According to Nielsen Research, U.Ã S. television viewership hit record highs in 2008 and continues to rise. By 2009, the average American watched more than thirty-one hours of TV per weekÃ¢â¬ (Pozner 132). If people are watching this much reality television it will definitely change the way society thinks because they are so used to seeing women as stupid on these shows so they will think they are stupid in the real world too. Stereotypes of self-image in both men and women are very common in reality television as well. Most of the time these shows are more focused on the way woman look. Modeling shows such as Americas Next Top Model stereotype women as being very skinny and beautiful. According to Martin Eisend and Jana Moller, the authors of, The Influence of TV Viewing on Consumers Body Images and Related Consumption Behavior, Ã¢â¬Å"Particularly females have not only biased perceptions and beliefs regarding body shapes but they obviously feel pressure to conform to those standards as wellÃ¢â¬ (Eisend and Moller 103). When woman see these Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ skinny and beautiful models on these shows, they strive to be like that, and sometimes it can be unhealthy mentally and physically. Eisend and Moller explain how Ã¢â¬Å"Biased media images of ideal female beauty seem to contribute to the fact that one woman out of every two is dissatisfied with her body. Ã¢â¬ (Eisend and Moller 103). The stereotypes of beautiful women on these shows are manipulating the way women and men are thinking. Just because someone is so perfect on these reality television shows makes the viewer feel like they are not good enough or not good looking enough. Jenifer L. Pozner discusses the issue of these stereotypes in the way woman look too. Pozner observed that, Ã¢â¬Å"nearly every reality TV dating show has reinforced the idea that women are unworthy of love and happiness if they are not stereotypically beautiful. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 70). Pozner quotes Mike Fleiss, the executive producer of The Bachelor. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"When we are looking for the bachelorettes we take all kinds of things into consideration. There are physical tests, there are blood tests, but most important Ã¢â¬â they have to look good in the hot tub. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 71). This proves that these stereotypes of beautiful woman are put on these shows on purpose. Pozner talks about a show thatÃ¢â¬â¢s called More to Love and deals with overweight people instead of the ideal beautiful woman. The show attempted to help viewers accept fat people a little more but it still continued to stereotype a lot. Pozner argues, Ã¢â¬Å"Plus size women who embrace their curves; have happy dating histories, and enjoy exercise, vegetables, and sex exist in the real world Ã¢â¬â but not on this show. Instead, viewers were treated to near-constant shots of zaftig women chowing down on pizza or meat-on-a-stick and crying about how theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be doomed to a spinsterÃ¢â¬â¢s life if the three-hundred-pound male star didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pick them, More to Love was supposed to be an inspirational show for people who are not in the best shape or not as fit, but failed to be inspirational and stereotyped fat people even more. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Next Top Model tried to be inspirational with a woman named Toccara Jones, and failed to do so too. Toccara was one of the first plus size models on the show, 180 pounds and a 38DDD. Throughout the begging of the show she was a fan favorite with a lot of confidence. As the show got later in the season the judges started to dislike her, and Pozner says she was put on the show as a Ã¢â¬Å"plus-size participant, who are set up to be broken down. Pozner revels that, Ã¢â¬Å"Toccara is recognized as one of the most successful African American plus-sized models working today. To reality TV producers, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s just a fat Black girl who needs to lose weightÃ¢â¬ (Pozner 82). This is a perfect example of how reality television stereotypes looks and body image. It is more than just a little bit of stereotyping too. There are much bigger social issues that are leaked out in to society because of this stereotyping. There was a girl named Luisel Ramos who worked for a modeling agency over seas. She suffered a heart attack and died right after a beauty pageant contest because of health issues. She only weighed 97 pounds and had a body mass index of 14. 5, which is very unhealthy. This is because modeling agencies want all of their models to be as skinny as possible even though there are health hazards and risks involved. Even though this terrible tragedy happened, modeling agencies still want there models on diets, keeping them from gaining weight, in fact, they want them on diets that make them lose even more weight. Pozner talks about a judge from Americas Next Top Model named Janice Dickinson who said, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m dying to find kids who are too thin. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got 42 models in my agency and IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to get them to lose weight. In fact, I wish theyÃ¢â¬â¢d come down with some anorexia. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not kidding. IÃ¢â¬â¢m running into a bunch of fat-assed, lazy little bitches who donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to do the stairs or get their butts into the gymÃ¢â¬ ¦ Models are supposed to be thin. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re not supposed to eat. Ã¢â¬ (Pozner 84) This goes to show people how ignorant and terrible these modeling agencies are, even after knowing people have died from being so skinny and unhealthy. This proves that it is not only in reality television anymore, but it is a terrible and dangerous stereotype in the real world, too. The stereotype of a so-called Ã¢â¬Å"uglyÃ¢â¬ person is another problem in reality television. It is not only weight thatÃ¢â¬â¢s involved, but there are also stereotypes of people who are not good looking enough. Susan Boyle is a perfect example for this. Su Holmes wrote a scholarly article on this subject called Ã¢â¬Å"Dreaming a Dream: Susan Boyle and Celebrity CultureÃ¢â¬ . Holmes talks about Susan Boyle who was a contestant on the reality television show called BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Got Talent. Susan Boyle is not the best-looking person out there and she suffered a mental defect since birth, but she has so much talent singing opera. Her singing surprised the judges and so many viewers around the world just because the average stereotyped Ã¢â¬Å"uglyÃ¢â¬ person on reality television normally is not perceived as having much talent. Holmes referenced a quote from Tanya Gold who was a journalist for the Guardian, which is a news company in the UK. Tanya Gold said, Ã¢â¬Å"Why are we so shocked when Ã¢â¬ËuglyÃ¢â¬â¢ women can do things, rather than sitting at home weeping and wishing they were somebody else? Ã¢â¬ (Holmes 75). This is very true. It was only a big deal to people because she was ugly. If she were the Ã¢â¬Å"average good-looking womanÃ¢â¬ her talents and story would not even be a big deal. This is why reality television needs to stop with all of this stereotyping because it is interfering with the way people see things and interfering with true talent. A very big stereotype in reality television is race. Many viewers of reality television it seems as if minorities or other groups of people that are not white are stereotyped and pointed out in some way. Thomas E. Ford, a Western Michigan University graduate wrote a scholarly article titled, Effects of Stereotypical Television Portrayals of African-Americans on Person Perception. As read in the title, his article obviously talks about stereotyping African Americans. Ford examines that African Americans portrayed on reality television Ã¢â¬Å"were more likely to have low socioeconomic statusÃ¢â¬ (Ford 267). This is a quite common conception that blacks are poor and that blacks donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same socioeconomic status as whites do. If reality television continues to portray this idea, the minds of viewers and young people all across the world will slowly continue to believe ridiculous things like this. A more recent scholarly article written by Mark P.Ã Orbe called Representations of Race in Reality TV: Watch and Discuss also gives great example of stereotyping race in reality television. Orbe gives an example from the show The Real World on MTV. Many times in the show, black males are seen as violent. Orbe agree to the fact the society starts to think this way too. Orbe said, Ã¢â¬Å"Other work has drawn attention to representations of African Americans males on MTVÃ¢â¬â¢s The Real World, specifically to how itÃ¢â¬â¢s programming format contributes to the hegemonic power of racial images and reinforces societal fears of black menÃ¢â¬ (Orbe 350). These are only few examples of many, but clearly reality television does, in fact, stereotype race. To sum it all up, reality television needs to change its way of portraying the topics of gender, self-image, and race. The amount of reality television that people are watching is only making it worse, too. The more viewers that are shown these stereotypes, the more it will become a reality, which is something that has happened slowly over many years. There are most certainly alternatives to stereotyping and still maintaining viewers for reality television. If producers keep it up and keep stereotyping, society will continue to be influenced by it. As mentioned before, these examples are only a few of hundreds of examples of how reality television stereotypes. Although viewers think reality television does not use stereotypes, based on all of these examples and many more, stereotyping of gender, self image, and race does exist in reality television, and is done because these shows know viewers will continue to watch, which leads to influencing the way society acts, thinks, and feels towards others.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Oxford Scandal Shakes up the Education World Essays Oxford Scandal Shakes up the Education World Essay Oxford Scandal Shakes up the Education World Essay Oxford is thought to be the pioneer of education all over the world and it comes as an inherent disappointment when a scandal like this comes to the fore. The newest scandal against the ancient university is that of taking students in accordance with their wealth, reports The Guardian. The news, revealed just this week, shocked students and parents across the world because of the inherent knack of meritocracy that Oxford was so well renowned for. This is the reason why many students were rejected to be a part of Oxford last year, since they had to prove that they had a substantial amount of wealth. Not only did that form an elitist society, but also did not give any chances to students from smaller backgrounds who deserved to study at the university. The court proceedings took place this week whereby officials from the Admissions Office had to apologize for their unmentioned criterion. Their claim was that most universities followed the same pattern and it only made sense if Oxford did not miss out. However, coupled with the low acceptance rate and the fee bracket, the judge felt that the argument only made so much sense. However, this practice, it was found, was only limited to postgraduate programs. This raised much hue and cry in the House of Commons where the University Minister, David Willets stayed mum on the issue and simply commented that he knew of the lack of transparency prevalent in the admission process and how that was hindering the talents of several students. The director of graduate admissions, was therefore, made to apologize in court for wrongly depriving students of their right to be able to study in the institution. Jane Elizabeth SherwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s apology was then reiterated back to her as it was found that despite her claims and suggestions, college policy was twisted to suit officials as opposed to students. This not only severely disturbed studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ faith in Oxford, but also kept poor students from even applying this year. Officials were disappointed by the precedent that had been broken because of these practices and promised an action to stop this. The college being sued is St. HughÃ¢â¬â¢s. In addition to thirteen thousand pounds asked of students, they were also to pay for their accommodation costs therein, making it impossible for them to afford Oxford. The latest update is that Elizabeth was not incriminated along with several others, because she purported, she had continuously fought for admissions to be made on the ground of meritocracy. It is imperative that education be provided to the best of its extent by college officials and if universities like Oxford have started going on money based agenda, then it is only a matter of time before the rest of UKÃ¢â¬â¢s universities decide to flare up their fees and not let poor students attend college courses. It is that kind of attitude that keeps most from achieving what they truly deserve in life.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Women In the US Army - Research Paper Example The information provided in the paper is all factual and based on the events which are related to the role of women in the army and its political effects. The paper starts initially during the early twentieth century and leads to the twenty-first century. It mentions how the policies have evolved with time and the present state. Earlier since the idea of women in uniform was bizarre to the US society as the military leaders, RogersÃ¢â¬â¢ proposition to include women as regular army was not seriously considered. Rather the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in the army was being perceived as a threat to the existing military. So the superstition that women are best suited for indoor activities such as cooking, washing, childrearing, etc. and that due to their physical weakness and psychological frailty, women would cause nuisances to the soldiers rather than contributing anything worthy during any wartime. This limited approach lead to the arousal of various issues. Considering the status of women as weak, frail and fragile who were always exploding with emotions were not considered to be feasible to be recruited for such harsh jobs. It can also be said that men even considered it to be a threat to their present status and how their dominance might get affected therefore due to which they could not accept this under any circumstances. It needs to be kept in mind that during this era the US society was not as liberal as it claims to be now therefore gender equality did not persist back then because of which problems aroused. Therefore initially they were not deployed for direct combats or trainings but were kept for womanly chores such as nursing, cooking, laundry etc. for the troops. The troops started to depend on these women for their daily necessities. Although these women were merely housekeepers for the troops but they were subjected to the armies code of conduct and had to perform their