Thursday, December 12, 2019

Validity and Reliability of Evaluation Tool †

Question: Discuss about the Validity and Reliability of Evaluation Tool. Answer: Introduction: Michael is the subject of evidence-based occupational interventions advocated by Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and requiring administration with the objective of enhancing his motivation to facilitate the pattern of activities of daily living and personal care. MOHO based approaches are prevalently utilized by occupational therapists in mental health practice in the context of elevating the psychosocial outcomes in mentally challenged individuals (Lee, et al., 2012). The occupational therapist will attempt to enhance the pattern of patients attributes including his performance, habituation and volition in the context of improving his skills related to the configuration of a daily lunch for school. The therapist would require systematically collaborating with a qualified nutritionist with the objective of evaluating the nutrition behavior and eating pattern of Michael in the community environment. Accordingly, the occupational therapist and nutritionist will require actively engagi ng with the patient as well as his family members in the process of lunch making and affectionately greet him at each step of lunch preparation for improving the level of his confidence and motivation in undertaking the desirable task on a routine basis (Jastran, Bisogni, Sobal, Blake, Devinee, 2009). The systematic alteration in patients eating choices might prove to be a significant clue to the occupational therapist in relation to the induction of his self-enhancement pattern regarding lunch preparation. The occupational therapist will evaluate various performance indicators for Michael after obtaining consent from his family members. This will require the systematic configuration of professional boundaries with the objective of engaging the patient for identifying the functional deficits requiring systematic mitigation through occupational intervention. Utilization of COPM (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) diagnostic modality will assist in evaluating the patient perspective for taking informed clinical decisions in the context of acquiring desirable mental health outcomes (Colquhoun, Letts, Law, MacDermid, Missiuna, 2012). The COPM assessment tool will assist in identifying the individual perception of the patient in relation to the constraints faced by him in day-to-day life. This tool will facilitate the administration of personalized healthcare interventions with the objective of mitigating the constraints and challenges experienced by Michael in real life situations. The occupational intervention would require conducting semi-structured interview with the objective of evaluating the apprehensions, perspectives, thought process and fears of the patient in relation to the effective undertaking of tasks attributing to the lunch preparation, laundry management and traveling through bus to a pre-defined destination. Indeed, after the systematic evaluation of Michaels perceptions regarding the functional activities the occupational therapist will systematically establish therapeutic goals and their accomplishment timeline with the objective of facilitating their step-by-step accomplishment for the acquisition of the desirable functional outcomes. These therapeutic goals require a thorough discussion with the patient and his family members before their eventual establishment. The occupational therapist will require accessing patients immediate environment for identifying the significant cues could facilitate his functional enhancement in accordance wi th the established therapeutic goals. For example, the occupational therapist will require accessing patients kitchen and evaluate the space and types of equipment available for helping Michael in the process of lunch-preparation. This will assist in the systematic configuration of various motivational interventions warranting administration for improving patients cooking capacity required to facilitate his self-sufficiency in relation to the process of lunch making on a routine basis. Similarly, the occupational therapist would require assessing patients laundry management skills with the objective of exploring the scope of improvement in undertaking laundry associated tasks. The occupational therapist will systematically evaluate patients confidence level in relation to the process of independent commutation through bus and other transport vehicles. This will assist in the identification of sustained psychosomatic deficits that hinder the motivation of the patient in terms of comm uting through the bus to the local shops. The patient feedback obtained through the COPM Intervention will substantially assist the occupational therapist as well as patients family members in terms of establishing evidence-based therapeutic goals for the substantial enhancement of patients psychosocial potential warranted for undertaking the desirable activities of daily living and personal care (Yang, Lin, Lee, Chang, 2017). The COPM intervention will also evaluate the level of patients responsiveness as well as willingness in terms of undertaking and accomplishing desirable occupational goals (Rehab Measures: Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, 2013). The COPM measure will also record the subjective experiences of Michael in relation to the prospective personal care goals, including any associated performance failures that he might have had experienced in the past while attempting to prepare his school lunch, managing the laundry and traveling to local shops through bus a fter School. These measurements will substantially assist the occupational therapist in terms of configuring real time strategies for the acquisition of Michales occupational outcomes. Data obtained from the semi-structured interview will require systematic recording the clinical database for its statistical analysis. Short-term goal for Michael will include accessing internet for reading the methods for lunch preparation and laundry management. The patient will require understanding each step of both processes through the internet and then discussing the content with his family members. This will eventually prepare his mind towards undertaking these activities of daily living and personal care while effectively mitigating the negative apprehensions. Michael will require visiting the bus stand on a daily basis and view the process of visitors boarding from buses. This will increase his confidence and motivation in terms of taking systematic steps for accomplishing the long-term occupational therapy goals. The long-term OT goal will include the sustained enhancement of patients postural control, strength and physical endurance to facilitate the coordinated functioning of upper extremities. The patient will learn to maintain appropriate posture consistently for a duration of 30 minutes without experiencing the pattern of ataxia or gait related abnormality. Improved postural control will eventually improve the pattern of patients fine motor skills required for undertaking the activities of daily living (Wang, Howe, Hinojosa, Weinberg, 2011). The enhancement of patients motor skills will also improve his pattern of his attention and focus while performing the desirable activities (Wulf, Shea, Lewthwaite, 2010). This administration of this self-controlled intervention under the assistance of occupational therapist and family members will facilitate the timely accomplishment of patients ADL-goals. Patient will also require undertaking dumbbell exercise with the objective of improving his extremity function required for activities like lunch preparation, laundry management and traveling through bus. Indeed, patients extremity improvement will substantially restore the pattern of his functional independence in the community environment (Wang, Greendale, Kazadi, Salem, 2012). The occupational therapist would require utilizing MBI (Modified Barthel Index) outcome measurement tool for objectively measuring patients improvement in terms of undertaking the activities of daily living and personal care (including lunch preparation, laundry management and travel to local shops from school through bus). MBI is a reliable tool for assessing the activities of daily living (Ohura, Hase, Nakajima, Nakayama, 2017). Scores retrieved through direct observation will define the extent of patients improvement in the context of predefined occupational therapy goals. In terms of ambulation measurement, score-0 will indicate patients complete ambulation dependence. However, score-3 will reveal the requirement of taking assistance from another person for ambulation. Score-8 will indicate the requirement of physical aids for movement. Score-12 will indicate patients movement independence; however, he might require external assistance for improving the pattern of his confidence and safety during travel. Score-15 will emphasize the requirement of wearing braces during sitting and walking in the absence of external supervision with the objective of facilitating hassle free movement of the patient. Similarly, lunch and laundry management tasks will require evaluation through different scores for evaluating the pattern of overall improvement in Michaels activities after the occupational therapy intervention. Scores 0- 20, 21-60, 61-90, 91-99 will indicate the pattern of total, severe, moderate and slight dependence of patient on the activities of daily living (ADL) (SV, 2017). However, score 100 will reveal complete independence of the patient in terms of undertaking the pattern of ADL. The systematic acquisition of a P-E-O fit warrants the integration of performance, occupational and environmental factors for generating the desirable outcomes from the occupational therapy intervention. In the presented case scenario, the accomplishment of patients occupational performance will be evident by the level of improvement in his activities of daily living and personal care. The performance components will require evaluating while assessing Michaels motor skills and communication pattern. These components must effectively coordinate with the environmental factors (including patients surroundings, societal and cultural attributes and other natural constraints) and occupational ingredients (occupational/self-care activities, leisure time and productivity) in the context of acquiring the desirable occupational performance. The systematic integration of the attributes including person, environment and occupation will eventually reveal the substantial improvement in Michaels ac tivities of daily living. For example, he will successfully prepare his lunch, manage the laundry task and commute to the local shops through bus in the absence of an external assistance. Michal will indeed be able to effectively surpass the environmental constraints and prove to be a good occupational fit in accordance with the P-E-O fit approach. Michaels sustained adaptation to the P-E-O fit constraints will affirm the establishment of his self-sufficiency in terms of independently undertaking the desirable activities (Lien, Steggell, Iwarsson, 2015). Bibliography Bigby , C., Johnson , H., O'Halloran , R., Douglas , J., West , D., Bould , E. (2017). Communication access on trains: a qualitative exploration of the perspectives of passengers with communication disabilities. 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